Hepatología is a medical and scientific open access journal published semiannually. Hepatología is the dissemination tool of the Colombian Association of Hepatology for scientific and technological advances in the area of Hepatology. Through the topics addressed in Hepatología, training and ongoing education is available to those interested in this branch of medicine, whether they are students or professionals.

The journal Hepatología publishes the knowledge and experiences of the members of the Colombian Association of Hepatology, undergraduate and graduate students of the different medical faculties in the country, Hepatology residents, and groups in public and private hospitals, among other professionals related to Hepatology, both in clinical and basic sciences.

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HEPATOLOGÍA

Cardiomyopathy in patients with liver cirrhosis: review article

Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is a complication in cirrhotic patients, with a prevalence of more than 40%. During the resting state, it is a subclinical entity, which triggers symptoms upon exercise or circulatory stress. Its pathophysiology is explained by portal hypertension leading to splanchnic vasodilatation, with subsequent release of vasodilators and cardio-suppressive factors, which leads to hyperdynamic circulation and circulatory dysfunction, with elevated cardiac output, decreased vascular resistance and low blood pressure.

Hepatobiliary disease associated with COVID-19

COVID-19, caused by the type 2 coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), has had a major impact on health worldwide. Despite being mainly a respiratory disease, the SARS-CoV-2 virus is also responsible for other types of extrapulmonary manifestations, such as hepatobiliary diseases. This review describes the possible mechanisms of pathogenesis involved in liver injury caused by SARS-CoV-2, and the relationship between COVID-19 and chronic liver disease, among other topics.

Conventional and emerging therapies in primary biliary colangitis

Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is an autoimmune disease characterized by damage of intrahepatic bile ducts, so far with unclear mechanisms of inflammatory cellular response, with the mitochondria as the target organelle. For several decades the control of bile acids and the treatment of cholestasis has allowed the management of patients, achieving a partial impact on the course and progression of the disease, also improving the survival of individuals.

Hyperbilirubinemia: pathologist's view

Normal serum bilirubin levels in adults range from 0.3 mg/dL to 1.2 mg/dL, and its value is determined by the rate of hepatic uptake, conjugation, and excretion. Jaundice becomes apparent when serum bilirubin levels rise above 2.5 mg/dL to 3.5 mg/dL and is an indicator of underlying disease. Bile is produced by hepatocytes and flows from the canaliculi, Hering’s canals, intrahepatic bile ducts, and right and left hepatic ducts to the duodenum.

Histological liver changes caused by chronic intake of monosodium glutamate

Glutamate is an amino acid that is involved in numerous reactions related to liver metabolism, so the overactivation of glutamate receptors due to the ingestion of monosodium glutamate (MSG) from the diet could lead to liver tissue damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histological changes produced in the liver of rats subjected to chronic administration of MSG.

Primary biliary cholangitis: characterization of a retrospective cohort

Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic liver disease of autoimmune origin, characterized by inflammation and progressive destruction of the epithelial cells of the intralobular bile ducts, causing secondary cholestasis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and liver failure. The natural history of the disease has changed in recent years due to the improvement in diagnostic and therapeutic methods.

Hepatic hydrothorax as a rare complication of cirrhosis. A therapeutic challenge in advanced cirrhosis

Hepatic hydrothorax is a rare entity in patients with cirrhosis. To date, several therapeutic alternatives have been proposed, both medical and surgical, prior to liver transplantation as the definitive management. We present the case of a 78-year-old patient with cirrhosis secondary to hepatitis C virus infection, who consulted the emergency department for respiratory distress, documenting a massive right pleural effusion of transudate type, which responded partially to diuretic therapy and drainage with pigtail, and later died due to hemorrhagic complications associated with cirrhosis.

Sclerosing cholangitis associated with severe infection by SARS-CoV-2

Secondary sclerosing cholangitis is a rare disease of multifactorial etiology with a progressive pathophysiology, characterized by biliary obstruction and fibrosis. Multiple causes include: IgG4 immune-mediated, ischemic, infectious and drug-induced. We present the case of a woman in her eighth decade with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection that presented with progressive jaundice, liver profile with cholestatic pattern, and imaging findings of sclerosing cholangitis with obliterated bile ducts, microlithiasis and biliary sludge.

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